Given this unlinking of cost and benefit, environmental improvement on a macro scale is impossible. It just never makes sense for an individual to act responsibly. Each polluting decision makes sense for the individuals involved, but taken in aggregate, we all are worse off.
One way to fix this situation is to outlaw certain decisions. However, voters tend to not take too kindly to this approach, and it often makes for bad policy. Another way to help line up individual and collective goals is to figure out a way to factor the cost of the pollution into the economics of the purchase. This can be accomplished via a tax on the pollution. It forces the individual to compensate the owners (everyone) of the resource (the environment) which is damaged by the individual's action. This idea is the basis of civil law; if I damage your property, I have to compensate you for it.